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Analysis on the application of semiconductor technology in automotive power system

since April 16, 2001, the State Environmental Protection Administration officially issued the "limits and measurement methods of pollutant emissions from light vehicles (II)", China is gradually accelerating the pace of limiting vehicle emissions. Later, with the rapid development of China's car ownership and annual output, in order to further protect the environment and implement the sustainable development strategy, China has successively issued national III and National IV regulations (see table I) to catch up with the regulatory requirements of developed countries such as Europe and the United States. Compared with the implementation of international emission regulations for several times, it can be seen that China's implementation is strong, and the pace of implementation is also faster

in recent decades, the development and progress of automotive technology are closely linked with more and more electronic technology applications. The wide application of electronic technology in automobiles has improved the performance of automobiles, effectively reduced emissions, and effectively promoted the safety and reliability of automobiles. And the progress of protection and maintenance methods of automotive electronics Jinan gold testing pressure testing machine is always inseparable from the progress of automotive semiconductors. The innovation of automotive electronics reveals to the manufacturers of spring change experimental machines: what aspects can judge the quality of experimental machines? Semiconductor technology poses new challenges, and the innovation of semiconductor technology provides essential conditions for the progress of automotive electronics. Power system is one of the most important core systems in automotive electronics, and semiconductor technology plays a very important role. As a basic component of power system, semiconductor devices directly affect the planning, layout and system control strategy of the whole system. Next, the application and innovation of semiconductor technology in automotive power system are introduced from the aspects of microprocessors, sensors and automotive power devices, as well as the prospects for the future of automotive semiconductors

with the continuous improvement of vehicle performance, including emissions, reliability and safety, the powertrain of generations of vehicles has undergone great changes. If we compare the vehicle power control system of this generation with that of another generation, we will find that the number of sensors and actuators has significantly increased, and the complexity of the control system has also greatly increased

in order to control the automotive powertrain more effectively, more and more sensors are applied to the system. The sensor can measure various physical parameters more accurately, so that the system can understand the current state and provide the possibility for accurate and effective control. The introduction of generation after generation of microprocessors has provided more and more powerful real-time computing capabilities for the power system. With the continuous updating and progress of semiconductor power devices, the control of actuators, such as engine ignition, fuel injection nozzles, junction valve bodies, etc., is more accurate and effective

progress and innovation of automotive microcontrollers

with the requirements for higher fuel consumption, emissions and power performance in automotive applications, microprocessors are facing a huge challenge to ensure that the oil intake is equal to the oil leakage. In order to meet the above-mentioned requirements, microprocessors have been greatly developed in terms of CPU computing power, signal acquisition and peripherals, as well as the control ability of actuators

the innovation and progress of the power system are often associated with the introduction of emission regulations. As the driving force of powertrain innovation, the introduction of new emission regulations always promotes the upgrading of powertrain. In order to meet the Euro 2 standard, 8-bit microprocessor is enough to meet the requirements. Infineon's 8-bit microprocessor c505 is still widely used in such systems today. Since the early 1990s, due to the improvement of the requirements of the system for microprocessors, 16 bit microprocessors have gradually been used in power systems. Infineon 16 bit microprocessor c167 has been widely recognized in the market for its excellent real-time processing ability. So it has been widely used in automotive embedded system. Table: emission limits of type I test and implementation date of regulations Figure 1: composition of engine and its management system core and peripheral equipment of c167 are customized for engine application. For example, the functional unit used to generate control signals, the analog-to-digital/analog converter used to optimize ignition and fuel injection, and so on provide a lot of convenience for the engine control system. Because of these unique functions, Infineon 16 bit MCU is still widely used in power systems

Infineon 8-bit C868 or XC164 series based on C166v2 structure provide the best solution for the control of many electronic motors in cars, such as drive by wire system, starting motor system or electronic turbo control. With the further improvement of requirements, 32-bit microprocessors are more and more used in powertrain control, and Infineon 32-bit TRICORE is a leader in this field. Besides RISC structure, TRICORE also integrates a digital signal processing module. In this way, the ability of the system to process complex signals has been greatly improved

Figure 2: the impact of microcontroller performance on fuel consumption

the 32-bit microprocessor audo series launched by Infineon not only has a 32-bit core and DSP processing chip, but also integrates a group of carefully designed peripheral devices. This set of peripherals is specially optimized for the power system. Peripherals have their own peripherals management module. It can control peripherals independently. In other words, the management of peripherals such as clock, a/D/a conversion and can bus can be directly completed by the peripheral manager, without occupying the resources of the main processing. The main processor program will not be interrupted by peripheral interrupts. This obviously strengthens the real-time performance of the microprocessor, and the real-time performance of the system will be improved accordingly. This is very important for the power system. Another remarkable feature of the audo32-bit microprocessor series is that the application software running in the central processor and the underlying driver running in the peripheral manager can run independently. The application program can run on a standard operating system, such as OSEK, and the underlying driver. 3. The measurability of environmental condition parameters. The environmental conditions provided by any environmental experimental equipment must be observable and controllable. The program is the interface between the application program and peripherals. Audo series microprocessors also have a general clock array that works independently, with the ability to complete complex work. This structure provides an optimal solution for injection control and ignition control in automotive power control system. This series of peripherals replace the functions that can only be completed by special chips, so as to simplify the system structure and reduce the system cost

challenges faced by automotive power devices

at first, the control system was mainly composed of discrete components. As the control system becomes more and more complex, especially for the new requirements of system diagnosis and protection functions, and the system allocates some specific functions to power devices, discrete components gradually can not meet such requirements. Most of the power devices used in automotive powertrain today are based on BCD Technology (bipolar CMOS DMOS). This technology not only has a DMOS structure that can drive high current, but also can integrate complex logic and control functions, such as over-current, over-temperature protection, diagnostic function, accurate current control, and so on. These functions obviously strengthen the reliability of the system and provide great convenience for OBD. More and more functions are integrated into power devices, which also effectively optimizes the system structure and further saves the cost of the system. Although more and more intelligent chips are used in the system, discrete components are often used in the power system with their unique advantages, especially for applications with large power loss, such as diesel injection system

in the power system, power devices control nozzles, oxygen sensors, heaters, ignition devices, fans, and various relays. Infineon offers a very comprehensive product range that can be used to drive these loads. The low-end multi-channel switch from 2 channels to 18 channels has a driving capacity of 50mA to 10A. Based on the different needs of customers, you can always choose the appropriate products in this standard product series. Based on the latest technology and packaging, Infineon is still constantly improving this drive product series. In this product series, Infineon attaches great importance to modularity, scalability and flexibility. Lego and flex product series well reflect these characteristics, and different products in the product series have good compatibility. According to different needs, one or several products can be used together

due to the rapid development of the small car market, new challenges have been posed to the automotive powertrain. This challenge has had a profound impact on the power system structure and control strategy. Embodied in automotive power semiconductors, the system requires highly integrated products. Due to the particularity of small cars, it is possible to integrate multiple power chip functions into one chip. By doing so, the system structure can be compact, the reliability can be enhanced, and the corresponding system cost will be greatly reduced. Of course, such a system puts forward stricter requirements for the heat dissipation processing of the system and the chip packaging technology

bcd technology has DMOS, CMOS and bipolar structures at the same time, which enables BCD based products to integrate complex control functions, which has an impact on the functional module division of the power system. More and more functions are transferred to power devices in the division of system function modules. In the past, many functions needed special chips to complete, or needed to occupy a lot of microprocessor resources. Now they are integrated into power devices. For example, in the gasoline direct injection system, the system needs a peak and hold function, which can be effectively realized by the power semiconductor chip based on BCD technology. Intelligent power semiconductor chip also integrates protection and diagnostic functions, which can automatically diagnose errors such as short circuit, overcurrent, overtemperature and open circuit. And these error states can be handled accordingly, such as automatic shutdown in the case of temperature overcurrent. After coding, these diagnostic information can also communicate with the microprocessor through the serial communication interface

wide application of automotive sensors

the initial application of sensors in automotive engine control is the control of engine igniter. The system determines the ignition angle and ignition time based on load and speed. The ignition control realized by this technology is very simple, and it is far from meeting the increasingly stringent requirements of fuel consumption, emissions and power performance today. In modern systems, in addition to load and speed signal sensors, engine temperature, intake pipe temperature, intake air volume, throttle valve position, oxygen sensor signals and so on must be collected and processed. Only by collecting these signals and processing them, the engine control system can accurately grasp the state of the engine and complete accurate control. Compared with passive sensors, semiconductor sensors have the advantages of high accuracy, high anti-interference performance and good durability. Therefore, semiconductor sensors gradually replace passive sensors in the automotive field, and have been more and more widely used

semiconductor sensors not only have sensing components, but also often integrate many other functions, such as signal preprocessing, diagnosis and signal interface processing. Infineon's integration pressure

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